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为什么印度至今还存在种姓制度

Mani Duraisamy, An inquisitive Quoran, trying to learn more

Caste persists in India, because its an inherent part of Indian society and culture. Whatever its faults might be, inequality is a part of Nature. Its foolish to go against that force of Nature. Its tempting to assume that with the growth of science and atheism - caste system and identities should disappear.

But in realities- humans always form groups. Group ism is a trait which sets humans apart from other lesser animals. Any human being would want to look for a similar of his ilk. It would help him be in his comfort zone. It would help to have someone who matches your frequency, has your lifestyle and shares the same sympathies as yours. Caste is one of the attributes that helps in maintaining this bond.

There are three angles to this-Economic angle, political angle and cultural angle, which explains why caste system still persists in India

种姓制度在印度依然存在,因为它是印度社会和文化的固有部分。不管它有多少缺点,不平等就是自然的一部分。违背自然的力量是愚蠢的。人们很容易认为,随着科学和无神论的发展,种姓制度和身份应该消失。

但在现实中——人类总是会形成不同的群体。群体主义是人类区别于其他低等动物的一种特征。每个人都想找和他相似的人。这能帮助他找到舒适区。如果有人能和你相匹配,有着和你一样的生活方式,和你有着同样的慈悲,那是大有益处的。种姓是帮助维系这种联系的因素之一。

我们可以从经济角度、政治角度和文化角度三个角度解释种姓制度为何在印度依然存在

Economic angle:

Today this is not of much relevance, but if one were to observe Indian history (and even the civilizations like Rome and Egypt), they see that a certain level of social stratification is indeed necessary to maintain order. In a predominantly agrarian society like India, a lot of manual labor is inevitable. We need a lot of people to do the labor work- tilling the lands, disposing of waste, transporting the produce. Each activity would be the specialty of one group of people.

For the purpose of being unbiased, I am going to ignore the Indian context here, and show a pyramid of the Japanese system

经济角度:

今天,这个因素并没有太大关系,但如果你观察印度的历史(甚至像罗马和埃及这样的文明),他们会发现一定程度的社会分层对于维持社会秩序确实是必要的。在印度这样一个以农业为主的社会里,大量的体力劳动是不可避免的。我们需要很多人来做体力活——耕种土地,处理垃圾,运输农产品。每群人都有自己的专长。

为了公正起见,我要跳出印度的背景,展示日本社会的金字塔 

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You can see that there is only one emperor and shogun , but a lot of peasants and merchants. Thats because the job of a peasant is such that they require a lot of manual effort and lesser qualifications and lesser pay. Now apply the same logic to the Indian caste pyramid and you might understand how it made (note the past tense) economic sense for the caste system to have persisted for centuries.

你可以看到一个社会只有一个皇帝和幕府,但有很多农民和商人。这是因为农业活动需要大量的体力劳动,不太需要资历,工资也较低。现在把同样的逻辑应用到印度的种姓金字塔上,你可能就会明白它使(注意:是过去时态)种姓制度持续了几个世纪,有多大的经济意义。

Political Angle:

Next comes the political angle. This is pretty much relevant in today’s India. Democratic Indian political structure and our Constitution makes sure that each and every group irrespective of caste, creed , language, region and gender gets their voice heard. Article 15 and 16 states that the State shall not discriminate against any caste and will also provide reservations to the socially disadvantaged.

Caste becomes important here- because politicians representing a caste can democratically get elected by his caste/ community and work for their betterment. In a democracy, people listen to their voters. Be it upper-caste or Dalits, politicians are a reflection of the social structure of our society. If caste-based politics exist, its because that inequality is natural and someone is needed to represent their problems in the corridors of power.

政治角度:

接下来是政治角度。这在今天的印度社会非常有关系。皿煮的印度政治结构和我们的宪法确保每一个群体,不分种姓、信仰、语言、地区和性别,都能发出自己的声音。第15条和第16条规定,国家不得歧视任何种姓,并为处于社会劣势的人提供预留席位。

种姓在这里变得很重要——因为代表某个种姓的政治家可以通过他的种姓/社区得以皿煮地推选,为他们的进步而努力。在皿煮国家,人们听选民的话。无论是高种姓还是贱民,政客都是社会结构的反映。如果存在以种姓为基础的政治,那是因为不平等是自然的,需要有人在权力走廊内反应他们的问题。

Cultural angle:

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